John Martin

laughing through grad school
(academic stuff) (hints of life beyond
school and work)
(Flying Moose videos, photos, stories, etc.) (observations)

Summation (Video)

The purpose of this section of my website is to examine my identities and my research in terms of some of the themes discussed in Mulitcultural Perspective in Education class that I took in Fall 2004 with Gloria Ladson-Billings.


Both internally and externally constructed, identity is largely determined by how well we fit into and enforce the discourses of a group or community. One's identity is largely influenced by the structural constraints of the other concepts on this page, however, I refuse to give up on individual agency, which when teamed with the agency of others can become instrumental in the most important theme that the class syllabus does not mention -- Resistance. Resistance occurs when we actively fight, question, or even reflect upon the regimes of truth that essentialize ourselves, and others.

Regimes of Truth and Normativity

Probably best defined by Foucault, I see regimes of truth as dominant discourses of normativitiy that one must understand and follow in order to "fit" as member of a community. Normative stands in opposition to deviant. Things, people, and concepts are defined by how they differ from the normative.


Discussed ala Judith Butler's notion of it, performativity focuses on the construction of normative identity through repetitive performances of a discourse/practice.

Double Consciousness

First coined by W.E.B Dubois, and expanded to much broader application than originally used, double consciousness refers to the expanded and unique awareness of the hegemonic, and nonhegemonic, discourse patterns by those outside of the hegemonic community, that those inside cannot see.


A post-colonial and post structural term perhaps best described by its genetic definition, but then transferred into the social discourse, hybridity refers to the identity, discourse, and practice, of individuals who exist in the liminal spaces between more established/accepted groups. The mule is neither horse nor donkey.

Navigation: All the links and concepts that are abstracted on this page, are discussed in more detail, and also "bent" on their own separate pages (linked through their headings). The Summation page applies all the concepts personally to my identity.